Der Fluss und die vielen kleinen Tropfen: Ein Gespräch mit Katharina Oguntoye

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Katharina Oguntoye ist eine afrodeutsche Schriftstellerin, Historikerin, Aktivistin und Dichterin. Sie gründete den gemeinnützigen interkulturellen Verein Joliba in Deutschland und spielte eine wichtige Rolle in den Anfängen der afrodeutschen Bewegung. Prof. Mathilde ter Heijne hat sich mit ihr getroffen um über das Buch Farbe bekennen zu sprechen, welches 1986 von Katharina Oguntoye mit May Ayim und Dagmar Schultz im Orlanda Verlag herausgegeben wurde. Die Sammlung ist eine Zusammenstellung von Texten, Zeugnissen und anderen Sekundärquellen und lässt die Geschichten Schwarzer deutscher Frauen, die in Deutschland inmitten von Rassismus, Sexismus und anderen institutionellen Zwängen leben, lebendig werden. Das Buch greift Themen und Motive auf, die in Deutschland von den frühesten kolonialen Interaktionen zwischen Deutschland und der Schwarzen „Andersartigkeit“ bis hin zu den gelebten Erfahrungen Schwarzer deutscher Frauen in den 1980er Jahren vorherrschen. 

Der Ausgangspunkt des Gesprächs war Looking Back 1930 I 2020: Building on Fragmented Legacies, ein Performance- und Diskussionsabend mit Karina Griffith, Sandrine Micossé-Aikins, Katharina Oguntoye, Abenaa Adomako und Saraya Gomis am 24.09.2020 im HAU Berlin. Die Veranstaltung fand im Rahmen des Programms Radical Mutation – On the Ruins of Rising Suns statt, kuratiert von Nathalie Anguezomo Mba Bikoro, Saskia Köbschall und Tmnit Zere. Das Programm verband historische Kämpfe für Gleichberechtigung, Antirassismus und Repräsentation in der Kultur und aktuelle Bemühungen um radikale Veränderungen mit Berlin als Startpunkt. Der Titel bezog sich auf eines der ersten überlieferten schwarzen Theaterstücke (Sonnenaufgang im Morgenland, 1930), welches die Repräsentation von Schwarzen Menschen in kulturellen Produktionen der Weimarer Republik in Frage stellte.

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The General Equal Treatment Act (AGG) is the uniform central body of regulations in Germany for the implementation of four European anti-discrimination directives. For the first time, a law was created in Germany that comprehensively regulates protection against discrimination.

Imagination of a gender system that consists of only two categories, male and female. Assignment beyond which is only allowed, if at all, only as a deviation from the norm – hides the following: gender, sex, desire, performance.

Differences in values, attitudes, cultural perspective, beliefs, ethnic backgrounds, sexual orientation, gender identity, abilities, knowledge and life experiences of each individual in each group of people should be considered and overcome within the university.

The concept according to Birgit Rommelspacher assumes that there is a system of hierarchies, rule and power in which the various racist, sexist and other forms of government intertwine. In this interconnectedness, a dominant group has the power, which is socially negotiated again and again.

the personal idea of one‘s own gender and one‘s own gender role. Within society, gender is the concept according to which we classify various ideas such as social status, gender presentation, role in society, life planning and sexuality into the gender categories.

Discrimination based on the organisational actions of institutions. Institutional discrimination is not present in society as a whole.

Inter * are persons born with physical characteristics that are medically considered to be „sexually ambiguous“. The generic term Inter * has evolved from the community, and refers to the diversity of intersex realities and physicalities as an emancipatory and identitarian umbrella term.

In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of discrimination, its individual forms of discrimination must not be considered independently of each other, as they are interrelated.

Discrimination based on the value of economically and educationally unequally strong classes. This is related to discrimination and stigmatisation based on actual or assumed educational status and social inclusion. Thus, the inferior classes in the hierarchy are problematised and stereotyped.

Culturally argued racism is directed against people who, regardless of whether they actually practice one culture or religion (e.g. Islam, Judaism) and how religious they are. (e.g. anti-Muslim racism (AMR) and anti-Semitism)

Describes a displacement of minorities to the social fringe. As a rule, marginalised groups do not correspond to the norm-oriented majority of society and are severely restricted in their ability to act.

Describes the basic assumption that thinking and brain structures function individually. A medical norm and the disease mongering of everything supposedly divergent is called into question.

Discrimination based on ones ethnic roots.

The conceptual distinction between gender as a biological fact (sex) on the one hand and as a product of cultural and social processes (gender) .

Any form of discrimination against people on the basis of their (attributed or supposed) sex and the ideology underlying these phenomena.

A person‘s sexual orientation describes which sex a person feels emotionally, physically and/or sexually attracted to.

System of socio-cultural values and norms into which one is born (environments and classes), e.g. Educational biography, social inclusion. Values are constructed.

System of socio-cultural values and norms into which one is born (milieus and classes). e.g. Educational status and social inclusion. Values are constructed.

Discrimination of social subgroups based on the nature of the structure of society as a whole.

„Trans“ is a Latin prefix, meaning beyond and refers to people who do not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth. The self-designation is not an identity feature that automatically indicates whether this person identifies with a different gender, gender or multiple genders. Thus, there are several trans identities.

This term is not a self-designation, but a description of a reality of people who do not experience racism. white is written in small italics and reveals privileges, which are often not named as such. So the term is not about skin shades, but about the visualisation of different access to social resources.

Negative assessment of body and mind due to abilities and skills. An evaluation pattern based on a supposed biological (physical and / or mental) norm.

Discrimination e.g. in everyday life and law based on unequal power relationships between adults, children, adolescents and young people.

Skills and abilities are questioned and rated due to ones age.

Cis or cis-gender refers to people who identify with the gender assigned to them at birth. If this were not named, trans * would always be marked as the deviation of a given norm.

This term focuses on how people observe, (re-)produce and make gender relevant in everyday life.

Is a self-designation to unite people affected by racism and to fight together against power relations such as racism.

In English, ‚queer‘ was used as an insult for a long time. In the meantime, however, the term is usually used positively as a self-designation and describes the breaking out of the two-gender order as well as heteronormative concepts of life.

Reciprocal interactions as a multi-dimensional approach between the university and the non-university environment, which also includes the cultural, social and political dimensions on an equal footing.

A superficial gesture to include minority members. It is intended to create an appearance of inclusion and to divert allegations of discrimination by requiring a person to be representative of a minority.